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What are the different Neuro developmental disorders? Explain.

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(a) Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) 

Inattentive-finds difficult to sustain mental effort during work or play-can’t concentrate, doesn’t listen, forgetful, disorganized, doesn’t follow instructions. Hyperactivity; Impulsivity

(b) Autism Spectrum Disorder

Difficulty in social interaction & relating to other people-unable to initiate social behaviors, seen unresponsive to other people’s feelings, unable to share experiences or emotions with others. Serious persistent abnormalities in communication & language-have repetitive and deviant speech patterns. Show narrow patterns of interests & repetitive behaviors-motor movements may be stimulatory or self injurious.

(c) Intellectual disability 

It refers to below average intellectual functioning (with an of approximately  or below) It can get manifested before the age of 18 years. It can be manifested at 4 levels: 

i. Mild 

ii. Moderate 

iii. Severe 

iv. Profound

Deficit or impairment in adaptive behavior particularly in the areas of communication, self-care, home living, social interpersonal skills, academic skills, vocational adjustment.

(d) Specific Learning Disability 

The individual experiences difficulty in perceiving and processing information efficiently and accurately. These get manifested in early school years the individual encounters problems in reading, writing and/or Mathematics. 

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