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Explain mental disorders from the perspective of any three psychological models. 

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1. Psychodynamic model -Abnormal symptoms are viewed as the result of conflicts between these forces. This model was first formulated by Freud who believed that three central forces shape personality- intrapsychic conflict— instinctual needs, drives and impulses (id), rational thinking (ego), and moral standards (superego). 

2. Behavioural model. This model states that both normal and abnormal behaviours are learned and psychological disorders are the result of learning maladaptive ways of behaving. Learning can take place by classical conditioning (temporal association in which two events repeatedly occur close together in time), operant conditioning (behaviour is followed by a reward), and social learning (learning by imitating others’ behaviour). 

3. Cognitive model. People may hold assumptions and attitudes about themselves that are irrational and inaccurate. People may also repeatedly think in illogical ways and make overgeneralizations, that is, they may draw broad, negative conclusions on the basis of a single insignificant event. 

4. Humanistic-existential model, which focuses on broader aspects of human existence. Humanists believe that human beings are born with a natural tendency to be friendly, cooperative and constructive, and are driven to selfactualise, i.e. to fulfil this potential for goodness and growth. Existentialists believe that from birth we have total freedom to give meaning to our existence or to avoid that responsibility. Those who shirk from this responsibility would live empty, inauthentic, and dysfunctional lives. 

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