City development occurred at the expense of ecology and environment
i. Natural features were flattened out or transformed in response the growing demand for space for factories and other institutions.
ii. Large quantities of refuse and waste products polluted water and air, while excessive noise became a feature of urban life.
iii.Widespread use of coal in homes and industries caused serious problems.
iv. In industrial cities like Leeds, Manchester and Bradford, hundreds of chimneys spewed black smoke
v. People complained about the black fog which descended on their homes causing bad tempers, smoke related illnesses and dirty clothes.