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Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow: 

Of the 197 million square miles making up the surface of the globe, the interconnecting bodies of marine water cover 71 per cent; the Pacific Ocean alone covers half the earth and averages nearly 14000 feet in depth. The continents- Eurasia, Africa, North America, South America, Australia and Antarctica- are the portions of the continental masses rising above the sea level. The submerged borders of the continental masses are the continental shelves, beyond which lie the deep-sea basins.

The oceans attain their greatest depths not in their central parts, but in certain elongated furrows or long narrow troughs, called deeps. These profound troughs have a peripheral arrangement, notable around the border of the Pacific and the Indian oceans. The position of the deeps near the continental masses suggests that the deeps, like the highest mountains, are of recent origin, since otherwise they would have been filled with wastes from the lands. This suggestion is strengthened by the fact that the deeps are frequently the sites of world-shaking earthquakes. For example, the ‗tidal wave‘ that in April1946 caused widespread destruction along Pacific coasts resulted from a strong earthquake on the floor of the Aleutian Deep.

The topography of the ocean floor is none too well known, since in great areas the available sounding are hundreds or even thousands of miles apart. However, the floor of the Atlantic is becoming fairly well known as a result of special surveys since 1920. A broad well-defined ridge- the Mid Atlantic Ridge-runs north and south between Africa and the two Americas, and numerous other major irregularities diversify the Atlantic floor. Closely spaced soundings show that many parts of the oceanic floors are as rugged as mountainous regions of the continents. Use of the recently perfected method of echo sounding is rapidly enlarging our knowledge of submarine topography. During Second World War great strides were made in mapping submarine surfaces, particularly in many parts of the vast Pacific basin.

The continents stand on the average 2870 feet – slightly more than half a mile above the sea level. North America averages 2300 feet; Europe averages only 1150 feet and Asia, the highest of the larger continental subdivisions, averages 3200 feet. The highest point on the globe, Mount Everest in the Himalayas is 29000 feet above the sea; and as the greatest known depth in the sea is over 35000 feet or exceeds 12 miles. The continental masses and the deep-sea basins are relief features of the first order; the second order. The lands are unendingly subject to a complex of activities summarised in the term erosion, which first sculpts them in great detail and then tends to reduce them ultimately to sea level. The modelling of the landscape by weather, running water and the other agents is apparent to the keenly observant eye and causes thinning people to speculation what must be the final result of the ceaseless wearing down of the lands. Long before there was a science of Geology, Shakespeare wrote, ―the revolution of the times makes mountains level‖.

Answer the questions by choosing the correct option:

1. The revolution of the times as used in the final sentence means 

a) The passage of years 

b) The current rebellion 

c) The science of geology 

d) The action of the ocean floor.

2. The passage contains information, which would answer which of the following questions?

 i) What is the highest point in North America?

ii) Which continental subdivision is, on the average, 1150 feet above the sea level?

iii) How deep is the deepest part of the ocean? 

iv) Why are the surfaces plain on the land? 

a) i and ii 

b) ii and iv 

c) ii and iii 

d) iv

3. From the passage, it can be inferred that earthquakes 

a) occur only in the peripheral furrows 

b) occur more frequently in newly formed land or sea formations 

c) are a prime cause of soil erosion 

d) will ultimately ‗make mountains level‘

4. Strong earth quakes in the deeps result in ________ . 

a) continental shelves 

b) tidal waves 

c) well defined ridges 

d) deep sea basins

5. Molesting the land, with complex destructive activities results in- __________ . 

a) submergence of land into sea 

b) erosion 

c) levelling of land 

d) none of the above

6. Choose one statement that is true among the following: 

a) The tallest mountain on the earth measures greater than the depth of the deepest ―Deep‖ in the ocean. 

b) The tallest mountain on the earth measures lesser than the depth of the deepest ―Deep‖ in the ocean. 

c) The tallest mountain on the earth measures same as the depth of the deepest ―Deep‖ in the ocean. 

d) All the above statements are false.

7. Which of the following graphs depicts the height of continents above sea levels with regard to North America, Europe and Asia.

8. Select the pie diagram which correctly depicts the surface area of A – Marine water other than Pacific; B- continents and C- Pacific ocean in million square miles.

1 Answer

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Best answer

1. c) The science of geology 

2. c) ii and iii 

3. b) occur more frequently in newly formed land or sea formations 

4. b) tidal waves 

5. c) levelling of land 

6. b) The tallest mountain on the earth measures lesser than the depth of the deepest ―Deep‖ in the ocean. 



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