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Why did some industrialists in the 19th century Europe prefer hand labour over machines ? Explain

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(i) In Victorian Britain, there was no shortage of human labor, so industrialists had no problem with labor shortage or high wage costs. They did not want to introduce machines that got rid of human labor and required large capital investment.
(ii) In many industries the demand for labor was seasonal. Gasworks and breweries were especially busy through the cold months. So they needed more workers to meet their peak demand. Bookbinders and printers, catering to X-mas demand, too needed extra hands before December.
(iii) A range of products could be produced only with hand labor. Machines were oriented to produce uniformly standardized goods for a mass market. But
the demand in the market was often for goods with intricate designs and specific shapes.
(iv) The aristocrats and bourgeoisie preferred things produced by hand in Victorian Britain. Hand-made products came to symbolize refinement and class.
(v) Hand-made products were better finished, individually produced and carefully designed.

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