Physical Quality Life Index (PQLI):
- Increase in national income and per capita income has a number of limitations. Hence, these two are not the real indicators of economic development.
- If the income of the country has increased but if the rise is seen only by a limited class of people then it cannot be termed as development.
- The development of a country should be such that the living standards of the poor rise and the basic requirements of the citizens are fulfilled.
- Keeping these things in mind Morris Davis Morris developed the Physical Quality of Life Index (PQLI).
- PQLI attempts to measure the quality of life or well-being of a country. This index refers betterment of physical quality of life of human beings as economic development.
- In order to derive the index of PQLI, the level of physical quality of life i.e. PQL is determined through various indicators.
- If a country’s physical quality of life is higher than that of the other country, then that country is considered as more developed.
- Morris included three indicators or say determinants for measuring the physical quality of life.
These three determinants are
- Life expectancy and
- Infant mortality rate.
- Thus, PQLI = Literacy level + Life expectancy index + Infant mortality index.
After 2003, three more aspects were included in PQLI and Quality of Life Index (QLI) was prepared in the world.