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Define  Physical Quality of Life – PQL

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Physical Quality of Life – PQL :

  • The objective of ED is to improve the standard of living of the people. So, Physical Quality of Life is accepted as an indicator of ED.
  • Consumption or living standards is identified as physical quality of life.
  • If the living standard of the people goes up, it can be said that physical quality of life has gone up.
  • To determine the physical quality of life, the following determinants are included :
    • Food
    • Health and Medical services
    • Housing and clothing;
    • Education and entertainment;
    • Transport, communication and information services
    • Energy
    • Drinking water
    • Average life expectancy
    • Infant mortality rate and
    • Drainage facility.
  • If there is improvement in the above determinants it can be said that there is improvement in the physical quality of human life.
  • Developed countries give more importance for the improvement of the physical quality of life.

Physical Quality Life Index – PQLI:

  • Davis Morris presented the Physical Quality Life Index.
  • In PQLI betterment of physical quality life of human beings is considered as Economic development.
  • The level of PQLI determines the level of Economic development. Higher is PQLI, more is the development of a country.
  • The three standard to measure the PQLI are :
    • Extent of Education
    • Life expectancy and
    • Infant Mortality Rate – IMR.
  • Thus, PQLI = Extent of education + life expectancy + Infant mortality rate.
  • Increase in the extent of education shows the rise in the welfare of an individual. Hence, it is the important standard of physical quality life.
  • Rise in life expectancy is the reflection of rise in the medical services of the country.
  • The fall in infant mortality rate, shows health care services of the country is good.

PQLI is formed as follows ;

  • PQLI is always between 0 and 100.
  • PQLI can be used to compare two states within the country or two different countries.
  • Higher the PQLI, more is the Economic development and lower the PQLI. lesser is the Economic development.
  • PQLI closer to 100, better is the performance of all three standards and PQLI closer to zero, bad is the performance of all three standards.
  • Thus, PQLI is the indicator of economic development superior to the per capita income.

Limitations of PQLI:

  • It is not proper to include on three aspects in calculating PQLI. It is necessary to include other factors also to the existing ones.
  • PQLI is an average. So, decisions cannot be made on the basis of averages.
  • It is not right to give equal weightage to all standards of PQLI.
  • Growth of income has been ignored in PQLI.

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