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NCERT Solutions Class 8 Science Chapter 10 Reaching the Age of Adolescence is the best suitable study material one must refer to while preparing for CBSE board exams or while preparing for tough competitive exams. NCERT Solutions is made in such a way that it makes it easy for students to grasp difficult concepts. Our NCERT Solutions Class 8 also discusses various concepts in detail.

Class 8 Science Chapter 10 helps learners about adolescence, changes in adolescence, adolescent hormones, sexual maturation in boys and girls, and menstrual cycles. Puberty, sexual characteristics, the roles of hormones in females, sex determination, and reproductive health are also covered in Chapter 10 Science Class 8.

NCERT Solutions Class 8 Science is one of the best study materials made in such a way that it will help students gain clarity at the grassroots level. You can download NCERT Solution for Class 8 Science to help you to revise the complete syllabus and score more marks in your examinations.

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NCERT Solutions Class 8 Science Chapter 10 Reaching the Age of Adolescence

1. What is the term used for chemical secretions of endocrine glands responsible for changes taking place in the body?


The chemical substance secreted by the endocrine glands is called Hormones. Hormones are responsible for the changes taking place in the body.

 2. Define adolescence.


The time period which comes between the beginning of adulthood and puberty is called Adolescence. In this time period, the body undergoes different changes alongside reproductive maturity. It starts somewhat at the age of 11 and ends at the age of 18 or19. This period of adolescence may differ from person to person.

3. What is menstruation? Explain


The process of shedding of the uterine lining on a regular monthly basis is called menstruation. It starts at puberty and in the reproductive cycle of the female body. The uterus prepares itself to receive a fertilized egg on every month. Due to this the inner lining of the uterus become thick and is supplied with blood to nourish the embryo. If the egg is not fertilized, then the lining of the uterus breaks down and get released in the form of blood through the vagina. The time period for this is about 2 to 8 days every month. This monthly cycle is known as the menstrual cycle.

4. List changes in the body that take place at puberty


The changes that take place at the time of puberty are as follows:

a) The height and weight of the body will suddenly increase

b) The hair seems to appear in the areas such as legs, hands, face and underarms

c) In female, the enlargement of the ovary takes place and starts producing matured eggs and on the other hand in males, the testis grows and starts producing sperms

d) In males, the shoulder broadens and chest becomes wide, whereas in females the region below the waist becomes wider.

e) Acne seems to appear because of the excessive secretion of the oil from the skin.

f) In boys, the larynx becomes prominent under the influence of hormones, the vocal cord becomes longer and thicker resulting in a hoarse voice.

5. Prepare a Table having two columns depicting names of endocrine glands and hormones secreted by them.


Endocrine Glands Hormones
Testis Testosterones
Ovary Oestrogen
Pituitary Growth hormone
Adrenal Adrenalin
Thyroid Thyroxin
Pancreas Insulin

6. What are sex hormones? Why are they named so? State their function


The chemical substances produced by the sex organs are called sex hormones. For example, in females, the sex hormones produced by the ovary is called oestrogen and in males, the sex hormones produced by the testis is called testosterone.

Some of the functions performed by the sex hormones:

Oestrogen: This hormone is responsible for the development of secondary sexual characters in females like enlargement of breasts, development of female reproductive organs, etc.

Testosterone: this hormone brings the secondary sex character in boys such as the growth of beard, the voice becomes hoarse, development of the reproductive organs etc.

7. Choose the correct option.

(a) Adolescents should be careful about what they eat, because

(i) proper diet develops their brains.

(ii) proper diet is needed for the rapid growth taking place in their body.

(iii) adolescents feel hungry all the time.

(iv) taste buds are well developed in teenagers.

(b) Reproductive age in women starts when their

(i) menstruation starts.

(ii) breasts start developing.

(iii) body weight increases.

(iv) height increases.

(c) The right meal for adolescents consists of

(i) chips, noodles, coke.

(ii) chapati, dal, vegetables.

(iii) rice, noodles and burger.

(iv) vegetable cutlets, chips and lemon drink.


a) (ii) proper diet is needed for the rapid growth taking place in their body.

b) (i) menstruation starts.

c) (ii) chapati, dal, vegetables.

8. Write notes on—

(a) Adam’s apple.

(b) Secondary sexual characters.

(c) Sex determination in the unborn baby.


a) Adam’s apple: In human males, the larynx grows larger at the time of puberty and can be seen as a protruding part of the throat. This protrusion is known as Adam’s apple. In boys under the influence of sex hormones, the larynx becomes prominent. Due to this, the vocal cord becomes thicker and longer which causes the voice hoarse. On the other hand in females, the larynx is of small size and is hardly visible. Therefore, girls have a high pitched voice while the boys have a deep voice.

b) Secondary sexual characters: Characters which usually appear during the phase of puberty are called as secondary sexual characters. These are the features that help in distinguishing the male and female body from each other.
Characters seen in male: Hoarseness of voice, appearance of beard, broadness of chest, growth of hair in genital areas.
Characters seen in female: Start of menstrual cycle, growth of breast, growth of hair in the genital areas.

c) Sex determination in the unborn baby: Sex of a unborn baby depends upon the pair of sex chromosomes that are present in the cells of the baby.
X and Y chromosomes are the sex chromosomes in humans. Ovum always contain X chromosome, male sperm may carry either X chromosome or Y chromosome. Male genetic make-up is 44 autosomes + XY chromosome and female genetic make-up is 44 autosomes + XX chromoses.

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9. Word game:

Use the clues to work out the words.


3. Protruding voice box in boys

4. Glands without ducts

7. Endocrine gland attached to brain

8. Secretion of endocrine glands

9. Pancreatic hormone

10. Female hormone


1. Male hormone

2. Secretes thyroxine

3. Another term for teenage

5. Hormone reaches here through blood stream

6. Voice box

7. Term for changes at adolescence



  1. Adam’s apple
  2. Endocrine
  3. Pituitary
  4. Hormone
  5. Insulin
  6. Estrogen


  1. Testosterone
  2. Thyroid
  3. Adolescence
  4. Target site
  5. Larynx
  6. Puberty

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