Railways and roadways are preferred over waterways in India despite the fact that waterways are cheaper due to the following reasons.
i. Unlike waterways which require the presence of navigable water bodies, roadways and railways can be developed anywhere on land and as such have a wider network.
ii. Unlike waterways, railways and roadways are not dependent on rainfall for their effective utility.
iii. Roadways and railways are able to overcome the issue of uneven terrain much more effectively than water transport.
iv. During floods, water transport is risky.