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Define electron gain enthalpy. How does it vary along the period and down the group of the periodic table? 

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The enthalpy change accompanying the addition of an electron to a neutral gaseous atom is called electron gain enthalpy. 

  • Electron gain enthalpy becomes more negative along the period. Reason: This is because the effective nuclear charge increases from left to right and it will be easier to add an electron to a smaller atom.
  • Electron gain enthalpy becomes less negative down the group. Reason: This is because size of the atom increases and the added electron will be farther from the nucleus.

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