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Explain sp3 hybridization by taking methane (CH4) as an example.

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During the formation of methane molecule, the carbon atom undergoes sp3 hybridization in the excited state by mixing one '2s' and three 2p orbitals to furnish four half filled sp3 hybrid orbitals, which are oriented in tetrahedral symmetry in space around the carbon atom. 

  • Each of these sp3 hybrid orbitals forms a σsp3-s bond with one hydrogen atom. Thus carbon forms four σsp3-s bonds with four hydrogen atoms.
  • Methane molecule is tetrahedral in shape with 109°28' bond angle.

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