Step1: preparation of ammonical brine Ammonia is passed through a Saturated solution of sodium chloride in water , ammoniacal brine is formed .It is cooled to 30°C
Step 2: carbonation Carbon dioxide gas is passed through ammoniacal brine ,where ammonium carbonate and sodiumbicarbonate.
NH3 + H2O + CO2 → (NH4)2CO3
(NH4)2CO3 + H2O + CO2 → 2NH4HCO3
NH4HCO3 + NaCl → NH4Cl + NaHCO3.
Sodium bi carbonate crystal separates and these are heated to give sodium carbonate.
2NaHCO3→ Na2CO3 + CO2+H2O
Step 3: Recovery of ammonia Ammonia is recovered when the solution containing ammonium chloride is treated with Ca(OH)2.
2 NH4Cl + Ca(OH)2 → CaCl2 + 2NH3 + H2O