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Describe the manufacture of sodium carbonate by Solvay process. 

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Step1: preparation of ammonical brine Ammonia is passed through a Saturated solution of sodium chloride in water , ammoniacal brine is formed .It is cooled to 30°

Step 2: carbonation Carbon dioxide gas is passed through ammoniacal brine ,where ammonium carbonate and sodiumbicarbonate.

NH3 + H2O + CO2 → (NH4)2CO3

(NH4)2CO3 + H2O + CO2 → 2NH4HCO3

NH4HCO3 + NaCl → NH4Cl + NaHCO3.

Sodium bi carbonate crystal separates and these are heated to give sodium carbonate.

2NaHCO3→ Na2CO3 + CO2+H2O

Step 3: Recovery of ammonia Ammonia is recovered when the solution containing ammonium chloride is treated with Ca(OH)2.

2 NH4Cl + Ca(OH)2 → CaCl+ 2NH+ H2

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