The following were the main reasons for the nationalists upsurge in the 19th century Europe.
(a) Apart from war and territorial expansion, it was culture which played an important role in creating the idea of nation. Whether it was music or art, poetry, or stories, every form of art contributed to expressing nationalist feelings nationalist feelings.
(b) Romantic artists created a sense of common cultural heritage as the basis of nation building.
(c) Vernacular language became one of the important reasons as folklore, folksongs etc. promoted the spirit of nationalism.