The main contribution of land routes to India in ancient times are :
(ii) Expansion of scientific knowledge.
(iii) Learning of other nations and cultures.
(i) Trade flourished through the land trade routes. The Silk route passing through the Himalayas is an excellent example.
(ii) Land routes enabled the expansion of scientific knowledge; important breakthroughs in science, technology, and mathematics were communicated to far across lands through ancient routes.
(iii) The land routes also helped in the understanding of the cultures and traditions of other nations.