(a) The Oriya novel
In 1877-78, Ramashankar Ray started to serialise the first Oriya novel, “Saudamini”; but it remained incomplete. Orissa’s first major novelist was Fakir Mohon Senapati. He wrote “Chaa Mana Atha Guntha” that deals with land and its possession. This novel illustrated that rural issues could be an important part of urban concerns.
(b) Jane Austen’s portrayal of women
Austen portrayed the lives of women of genteel rural society in early nineteenth-century Britain. Her novels explore the social norms that women had to follow—predominantly, their duty was to marry wealthy husbands who could offer them financial and social security. The women in Jane Austen’s novels are not always shown to conform to social convention. Although her works do typify the society she lived in, the protagonist in her novels is always an independent-minded woman.
(c) The picture of the new middle class which the novel Pariksha – Guru portrays.
The novel “Pariksha - Guru” portrays the difficulties of the new middle class in adapting to colonised society while preserving its cultural identity. It emphasises that Western ideals must be inculcated, but without sacrificing the traditional values of middle-class households. The characters in this Hindi novel by Srinivas Das are seen endeavouring to bridge the two different worlds of modern education and traditional ethics.