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Compare a solid shaft with a hollow shaft, by strength and by their weight.

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(a) Comparison by strength: Assume that both the shaft have same length, material, same weight and hence the same maximum shear stress. Let, 

DS = Diameter of the solid shaft. 

DH = External Diameter of the Hollow shaft 

dH = Internal diameter of the hollow shaft 

AS = Cross sectional Area of solid shaft 

AH = Cross-sectional area of hollow shaft 

TS = Torque transmitted by the solid shaft 

TH = Torque transmitted by the hollow shaft

TH /TS = 1.44 

This show that the torque transmitted by the hollow shaft is greater than the solid shaft, thereby proving that the hollow shaft is stronger than the solid shaft. 

(b) Comparison by weight: Assume that both the shaft have same length, material, Now if the torque applied to both shafts is same, then the maximum shear stress will also be same in both the cases.

Let WH = Weight of hollow shaft 

 WS = Weight of Solid shaft 

Then, WH/WS = AH/AS 

WH/WS = 0.7829

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