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Hiccups are bursts of inspiratory (breathing in) activity. The muscles we use when we take in a breath are the intercostal muscles situated between the ribs and the diaphragm - a sheet of muscle below the lungs. 

Most simple cases of hiccups come after eating or drinking too much or too quickly. The stomach, which is situated right below the diaphragm, becomes distended and irritates it. This will cause the diaphragm to contract, as it does when we breathe in.

There are also Pathophysiological Causes:

  • Coughing 
  • Swallowing air excessively 
  • Rapid eating
  •  Intense emotion such as fear, anxiety, excitement,joy , or euphoria
  • Carbonated beverages, alcohol, dry breads and some spicy food
  • Laughing

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