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What causes the opening and closing of guard cells of stomata during transpiration?

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 A change in the turgidity of guard cells results in closing or opening of stomata. The inner wall of the guard cell; towards the stomatal aperture; is thick and elastic. An increase in turgidity results in the thin outer walls to bulge out. This forces the inner wall into a crescent shape and results in opening of stoma. The orientation of the microfibrils in the cell walls of the guard cells also helps in opening of stomata. These meicrobifibrils are radially oriented and thus make it easy for the stoma to open up. A loss in turgidity of the guard cells, leads to resumption of shape of the elastic inner wall of the guard cell and the stoma closes.

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