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What causes the opening and closing of guard cells of stomata during transpiration?

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Normally stomata are open in the day time and close during the night.

The immediate cause of the opening or closing of the stomata is a change in the turgidity of the guard cells. The inner wall of each guard cell, towards the pore is thick and elastic. When turgidity increases within the two guard cells flanking each stomatal aperture thin outer walls bulge out and force the inner walls into a crescent shape. The opening of the stoma is also aided due to the orientation of the microfibrils in the cell walls of the guard cells.

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