(i) Protonema – It is the first stage in the life cycle of a moss, developing directly from the spore. It consists of creeping, green, branched, and often filamentous structures.
(ii) Antheridium – It is the male sex organ present in bryophytes and pteridophytes and is surrounded by a jacket of sterile cells. It encloses the sperm mother cells, which give rise to the male gametes.
(iii) Archegonium – It is the female sex organ present in bryophytes, pteridophytes, and gymnosperms. In bryophytes and pteridophytes, it generally has a swollen venter and a tubular neck, and contains the female gamete called the egg.
(iv) Diplontic – It is the term used for the life cycles of seed-bearing plants (gymnosperms and angiosperms). In these plants, the diploid sporophyte is dominant, photosynthetic, and independent. The gametophyte is represented by a single-celled (or a few-celled) structure.
(v) Sporophyll – In pteridophytes, the sporophytic plant body bears sporangia. These sporangia are subtended by leaf-like appendages known as sporophylls. In gymnosperms, microsporophylls and megasporophylls are found. These bear microspores and megaspores respectively.
(vi) Isogamy – It is a type of sexual reproduction involving the fusion of morphologically-similar gametes. This means that the gametes are of the same size, but perform different functions. This type of reproduction is commonly observed in Spirogyra.