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Write a short note on the history of computers.

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1. Abacus: 

The abacus was an early tool for mathematical computations. A skilled abacus user can work on addition and subtraction problems at the speed of a calculator. The abacus is still in use today.

2. Napier Bones:

John Napier invented logarithms, where the logarithm values were carved on ivory sticks which are now called Napier’s Bones.

3. Slide Rule:

Napier bones were modified by Edmund Guntur in the year 1620. It consists of a ruler and a sliding piece both marked with logarithmic values. It was further modified by William Oughtred.

4. Pascal’s calculating machine: 

The first successful mechanical calculator was constructed by Pascal in 1642.

5. Leibnitz’s Machine: 

It is the modified form of Pascal’s machine.

6. Charles Babbage’s Machine:

In 1833, Charles Babbage invented Charles Babbage Machine. He is known as the “Father of Computers”. 

7. Census Machine: 

This machine was devised by Dr. Hermann Hollerith for tabulating the 1980 US. Census.

8. Jacquard Loom: 

A weaving machine invented by Joseph Marie Jacquard in the beginning of the 19th century.

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