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Write a short note on the first generation of computers.

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Period Component used Access time Cost
1949 - 1959 Vacuum tube in Milli seconds Very expensive

1. The first computers used vacuum tubes for electronic circuitry and magnetic drums for memory. 

2. They were very expensive to operate and the power consumption was high, generated a lot of heat, which was often the cause of malfunctions.

3. First-generation computers were communicated through machine language to perform operations, and they could only solve one problem at a time.

4. Input was based on punched cards and paper tape, and output was displayed on printouts.

5. UNIVAC and ENIAC computers are examples of first-generation computing devices.


  • For Calculation and computation.
  • Payroll Processing
  • Record keeping


  • Required a huge space
  • Too big in size
  • Very slow in speed
  • Low level of accuracy and reliability
  • Low storage capacity
  • High power consumption
  • High heat generation
  • Used machine language
  • Difficult to maintain
  • Fault finding was very difficult

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