1. Legislative Functions: The Legislative Assembly is entitled to pass laws on all subjects that fall under the state list such as police, public health, education, local-self governments, etc. Without the consent of the Vidlianasabha, no bill can become a law. Though the Vidhanasabha is competent enough to make laws on subjects listed in the concurrent list along with the central legislature, if parliament passes a law contained in the concurrent list, the legislative assembly is not competent to pass a law on the same subject.
However, some bills require the previous permission of the President before they are introduced in the state legislature. In case of breakdown of constitutional machinery in a state or when the proclamation of emergency is in operation, parliament has the power of making laws on matters falling under the state list. In case of a conflict between state law and the law of the parliament, the law of the parliament shall supreme.
2. Financial Functions: The Vidhanasabha enjoys total control over the finance of the state. No new tax can be levied or collected without the consent of the Vidhanasabha. The authority of the Vidhanasabha over Vidhanaparishad is strengthened by the fact that a Money bill or Financial bill can only originate in the Vidhanasabha and the Vdhanaparishad can at the most delay it by 14 days but cannot reject or amend the Bill. The annual income-expenditure statement of the year the Budget must get the approval of the Vidhanasabha. Every- year during March-April, the beginning of the financial year, it is the responsibility of the government to place the budget before the house and seek its approval.
3. Control over the Executive (Administration): The Vidhanasabha enjoys direct control over the administration, as the executive is directly, collectively, responsible to the Vidhanasabha and remains in office as long as they enjoy the confidence of the house. The members of the house can seek information from the government through questions and supplementary questions. It is the responsibility of the ministers to clarify points raised by members and give a satisfactory explanation.
Any attempt to lie or mislead the house is considered an offence against the house punishable under Contempt of the House. The debating occasions such as the Question Hour, Adjournment motion, the Emergency Adjournment motion, the Zero Hour, the Cut motion, the Call-attention motion keeps the executive under constant check and tire executive must be alert and ready with answers. However, ministers can ask for time to answer questions. The most effective weapon in the hands of the Vidhana sabha is the No-confidence motion, which can bring down a government.
4. Electoral Functions: The members of the Vidhana sabha along with the members of the parliament constitute an electoral college to elect the President of India. They also take part in electing the members of Rajyasabha and also of the members of Legislative council.
5. Constituent Functions: The state legislative assembly takes part in amending a few constitutional provisions. The Assembly does not initiate any amendment to constitution neither does it has such powers. But ratification of at least not less than half of the State legislative assemblies is necessary 1 for amending certain provisions of the constitution. For instance, if there has to be an amendment made to electoral procedure of electing president of India then it has to be ratified by 1/2 of the states, which in turn is done by state legislative assemblies.