A bill in order to become a law has to go through the law-making process. A bill, other than a Money bill, can originate in either house of the parliament before it goes to the President for assent. Non-money bill goes through three readings, involving five stages, in both the houses, before becoming a Law. A Bill may be moved by a private member called a Private Member bill or by a minister representing the Government called a Public bill. It is also called a Government bill.
1. The First Reading: A minister or a member can introduce a bill with the permission of the Speaker. No formal debate or no speeches relating to contents of the bill are made at this stage. After the bill has been introduced, it is immediately published in the Gazette of the Government of India. Now. the First reading of the bill is complete.
2. The Second Reading: At this stage, the concerned minister provides details such as the purpose, objectives, and background of the bill in general as well as specifics relating to various clauses, schedules, and amendments to take place. No corrections or amendments can be made at this stage and after detailed discussion, the bill is put to vote.
3. The Committee Stage: At this stage, the bill is submitted to a Committee and the names of. the members of the Committee are published. The committee headed by a chairman examines the Bill and its provisions and discusses it clause by clause. In the process, it may ask for relevant information and suggest its own changes and modifications. And now, the report and the bill are published in the Gazette.
4. The Report Stage: Based on recommendations made by the Committee, the bill goes through detailed discussions. Changes can be suggested at this stage and the Report Stage is the last chance for the members to make any amendments to the bill.
5. The Third Reading: This is the formalization stage of the bill where general discussions about the concerned bill take place. At this stage, no formal amendments can be made except informal changes. Then the bill is put to vote. Though the bill is open tor rejection, even at this stage, it is not normally resorted to.
After completing five stages in the House from which it originated, say Rajyasabha, it goes to the loksabha and has to undergo the same procedure. After getting passed in both the houses, it goes for the acceptance of the President. In case the other house rejects the bill altogether, the president may call for a joint sitting of the parliament to resolve the deadlock (Article 108).