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Describe the following: (a) synapsis (b) bivalent (c) chiasmata Draw a diagram to illustrate your answer.

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(a) Synapsis
The pairing of homologous chromosomes is called synapsis. This occurs during the second stage of prophase I or zygotene.

(b) Bivalent
Bivalent or tetrad is a pair of synapsed homologous chromosomes. They are formed during the zygotene stage of prophase I of meiosis.

(c) Chiasmata
Chiasmata is the site where two sister chromatids have crossed over. It represents the site of cross-over. It is formed during the diplotene stage of prophase I of meiosis.

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