In mitotic division, a single division results in two daughter cells.
Meiotic division involves two successive divisions – meiosis I and meiosis II. These divisions result in four daughter cells.
Mitosis is known as equational division. This is because the daughter cells have the same diploid number of chromosomes as the parent.
Meiosis I is known as reductional division. This is because the chromosome number is reduced to half.
Meiosis II is known as equational division. This is because the sister chromatids separate and the chromosome number remains the same.
Prophase is short and does not comprise any phase.
Prophase I is very long and comprises 5 phases –leptotene, zygotene, pachytene, diplotene, and diakinesis.
There is no pairing of chromosomes, crossing-over, or chiasmata-formation during prophase.
In the zygotene stage of prophase, the pairing of chromosomes occurs. During pachytene, the crossing-over occurs. The chiasmata are formed in the diplotene stage.
Synaptonemal complex is not formed.
Synaptonemal complex is formed during the zygotene stage of prophase I.
Anaphase involves the separation of the chromatids of each chromosome.
During anaphase I, the homologous chromosomes separate, while the chromatids remain attached at their centromeres.
During anaphase II, the chromatids separate as a result of the splitting of the centromere.
Mitosis plays a significant role in the healing, repair, and growth of a cell.
Meiosis brings about variation and maintains the chromosome number from generation to generation.