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(a) Diffusion and Osmosis
(b) Transpiration and Evaporation
(c) Osmotic Pressure and Osmotic Potential
(d) Imbibition and Diffusion
(e) Apoplast and Symplast pathways of movement of water in plants.
(f) Guttation and Transpiration.

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(a) Diffusion and osmosis

Diffusion

Osmosis

1.

Diffusion is the passive

1.

Osmosis is the process in which

movement of particles, ions, and molecules along the concentration gradient.

the diffusion of a solvent (water) occurs across a semi-permeable membrane.

2.

It can occur in solids, liquids, and gases.

2.

It occurs in the liquid medium.

3.

It does not require a semipermeable membrane.

3.

It requires a semi-permeable membrane.

(b) Transpiration and evaporation

Transpiration

Evaporation

1.

It occurs in plants.

1.

It occurs from any free surface and involves living and non-living surfaces.

2.

It is a physiological process.

2.

It is a physical process.

3.

It occurs mainly through the stomatal pores on plant leaves.

3.

It is occurs through any free surface.

4.

It is controlled by environmental factors as well as physiological factors of plants such as root-shoot ratio and number of stomata.

4.

It is entirely driven by environmental factors.

(c) Osmotic pressure and osmotic potential

Osmotic pressure

Osmotic potential

1.

It is expressed in bars with a positive sign.

1.

It is expressed in bars with a negative sign.

2.

It is a positive pressure.

2.

It is a negative pressure.

3.

Its value increases with an increase in the concentration of solute particles.

3.

Its value decreases with an increase in the concentration of solute particles.

(d) Imbibition and diffusion

Imbibition

Diffusion

1.

Imbibition is a special type of diffusion. In this process, water is absorbed by solids and colloids, causing an enormous increase in volume.

1.

Diffusion is the passive movement of particles, ions, and molecules along the concentration gradient.

2.

It usually involves water.

2.

It involves solids, liquids, and gases.

(e) Apoplast and symplast pathways of movement of water in plants

Apoplast pathway

Symplast pathway

1.

The apoplast pathway involves the movement of water through the adjacent cell walls of the epidermis and cortex. The movement of water is restricted at the casparian strips of the root endodermis.

1.

The symplast pathway involves the movement of water through the interconnected protoplasts of the epidermis, cortex, endodermis, and root pericycle.

2.

It is a faster process of water movement and water moves through mass flow.

2.

It is a slower process of water movement.

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