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How are human activities responsible for the degradation of land?

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(i) Mining: Mining sites are abandoned after excavation work is complete leaving deep scars in states such as Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh and Odisha. Deforestation due to mining has caused severe land degradation.

(ii) Over-irrigation: Over-irrigation in the states of Punjab, Haryana, western Uttar Pradesh, has caused waterlogging and increase in salinity of the soil.

(iii) Overgrazing: Overgrazing in states such as Gujarat, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra is a huge cause due to cattle population.

(iv) Industries: Mineral processing industry like grinding of limestone for cement industry and calcite and soapstone for ceramic industry generate a huge quantity of dust, this retards the process of infiltration of water into the soil.

(v) Industrial waste: Industrial effluents also have become a major source of land degradation.

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