The productivity of a plant is measured by the rate at which it photosynthesises. The amount of carbon dioxide present in a plant is directly proportional to the rate of photosynthesis. C4 plants have a mechanism for increasing the concentration of carbon dioxide. In C4 plants, the Calvin cycle occurs in the bundle-sheath cells. The C4 compound (malic acid) from the mesophyll cells is broken down in the bundlesheath cells. As a result, CO2 is released. The increase in CO2 ensures that the enzyme RuBisCo does not act as an oxygenase, but as a carboxylase. This prevents photorespiration and increases the rate of photosynthesis. Thus, C4 plants are highly productive.