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The process of aerobic respiration is divided into four phases – glycolysis, TCA cycle, ETS, and oxidative phosphorylation. It is generally assumed that the process of respiration and production of ATP in each phase takes place in a step-wise manner. The product of one pathway forms the substrate of the other pathway. Various molecules produced during respiration are involved in other biochemical processes. The respiratory substrates enter and withdraw from pathway on necessity. ATP gets utilized wherever required and enzymatic rates are generally controlled. Thus, the step-wise release of energy makes the system more efficient in extracting and storing energy.

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