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Most living organisms cannot survive at temperature above 45°C. How are some microbes able to live in habitats with temperatures exceeding 100°C?

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Temperature > 45°C causes precipitation of protoplasm and denaturation of enzymes. Therefore they die in most of organisms But some live in 1000°C (thermophiles) due to

  • Branched-chain lipids that reduce fluidity of cell membranes.
  • Inborn metabolism to produce heat-tolerant enzymes
  • Reduced free water.

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