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Explain the process of inspiration under normal conditions.

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Inspiration or inhalation is the process of bringing air from outside the body into the lungs. It is carried out by creating a pressure gradient between the lungs and the atmosphere. When air enters the lungs, the diaphragm expands toward the abdominal cavity, thereby increasing the space in the thoracic cavity for accommodating the inhaled air.
The volume of the thoracic chamber in the anteroposterior axis increases with the simultaneous contraction of the external intercostal muscles. This causes the ribs and the sternum to move out, thereby increasing the volume of the thoracic chamber in the dorsoventral axis. The overall increase in the thoracic volume leads to a similar increase in the pulmonary volume. Now, as a result of this increase, the intra-pulmonary pressure becomes lesser than the atmospheric pressure. This causes the air from outside the body to move into the lungs.

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