Physical Methods include blood doping, Gene doping.
Blood doping : It is an illicit method of improving athletic performance by artificially boosting the blood ability to bring more oxygen to muscles. Blood doping increases the amount of hemoglobin in the blood stream. Since hemoglobin is an oxygen carrying protein in the blood. So increasing hemoglobin allows high amount of oxygen to reach and fuel in an athlete’s muscles.
Gene doping : It is the non-therapeutic use of cells. Or the modulation of gene expression, having the capacity to improve athletic performance. Increased muscle growth, blood production, endurance, oxygen disposal and pain resistance. In such cases nothing unusual would enter the blood stream. The new gene may be identical to the natural gene and may not be in every cell of the body. Some viruses are present in certain organs such as kidney, liver thus only samples taken from these are as can lead to detection.
Prohibited Substances and Methods : Prohibited substances and methods are those substances which are banned or prohibited from use in sports. A substance or method is added to the list of prohibited substances and methods if it enhances the sports performances or damages the health of the athlete. In case any athlete takes such substance for therapeutic use he will have to apply to the International federation for exemption.