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What is topology explain in detail?

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Topology is the geometric arrangement of a computer system in the network. Common topologies include a

  • Linear bus Topology
  • Star Topology
  • Tree Topology and
  • Ring Topology

Linear Bus
A linear bus topology consists of a central cable with a terminator at each end. All nodes (file server, workstations, and peripherals) are connected to the linear cable.

Advantages of a Linear Bus Topology

  • Easy to connect a computer or peripheral to a linear bus.
  • It requires less cable length than a star topology.

Disadvantages of a Linear Bus Topology

  • The entire network shuts down if there is a break in the main cable.
  • Terminators are required at both ends of the backbone cable.
  • Difficult to identify the problem if the entire network shuts down.
  • Not meant to be used as a stand-alone solution in a large building.

Star Topology

A star topology is designed with each node (file server, workstations, and peripherals) connected directly to a central network hub, switch. Data on a star network passes through the hub, switch, before continuing to its destination. The hub, switch, manages and controls all functions of the network. It also acts as a repeater for the data flow. 

Advantages of a Star Topology.

  • Easy to install and wire.
  • No disruptions to the network when connecting or removing devices.
  • Easy to detect faults and to remove parts.

Disadvantages of a Star Topology

  • Requires more cable length than a linear topology.
  • If the hub, switch fails, nodes attached are disabled.
  • More expensive than linear bus topologies because of the cost of the hubs, etc.

Tree topology

A tree topology combines characteristics of linear bus and star topologies. It consists of groups of star configured workstations connected to a linear bus backbone cable. Tree topologies allow for the expansion of an existing network.
Advantages of a Tree Topology

  • Point-to-point wiring for individual segments.
  • Supported by several hardware and software venders.

Disadvantages of a Tree Topology

  • Overall length of each segment is limited by the type of cabling used,
  • If the backbone line breaks, the entire segment goes down.
  • More difficult to configure and wire than other topologies.

Ring Topology

In-ring network each node connects to exactly two other nodes, forming a single continuous pathway for signals through each node - a ring. Data travels from node to node, with each node along the way handling every packet.

Advantages

  • Very orderly network where every device has access to the token and the opportunity to transmit
  • Performs better than a star topology under heavy network load
  • Does not require a network server to manage the connectivity between the computers

Disadvantages

  • One malfunctioning workstation or bad port in the MAU can create problems for the entire network
  • Moves, adds and changes of devices can affect the network
  • Much slower than an Ethernet network under normal load.

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