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What are the different forms of power sharing in modern democracies? Give an example of each of these. Or Are decisions inherent to the working of democracy?

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The different forms of power-sharing in modern democracies are:

  •  Horizontal Division of Power- It is the sharing of power among the different organs of government, for example, power sharing by the executive, the Legislature and the Judiciary. In this type of power-sharing arrangement, different organs of government, placed at the same level, exercised different powers. Such a separation ensures that none of the organs can exercise unlimited power, thereby putting a check on each other.
  •  Vertical Division of Power- It is a system of power sharing among governments at different levels. For example, a general government for the entire country and governments at provincial or regional levels. In India, we refer to it as the Central Government, State Governments, Municipality, Gram Panchayat etc. The Constitution lays down the powers of different levels of government.
  •  Division of Power among different Social Groups- Power can also be shared among different groups which differ socially like different religious and linguistic groups. ‘Community Government’ in Belgium is a good example of this type of power sharing. The system of reserved constituencies in India is another example. Such an arrangement is used to give minority communities a fair share in power, who otherwise would feel alienated from the government.
  • Division of Power among Political Parties, Pressure Groups, and Movements- In contemporary democracies such a division takes the form of competition among different parties, which in turn ensures that power does not remain in one hand and is shared among different political parties representing different ideologies and social groups.

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