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Why is there a need for harnessing non-conventional sources of energy? How can energy be harnessed from the sea in different ways?

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Following are the reason for the need to harness non-conventional sources of energy.

(a) Conventional sources are exhaustible source of energy and they will get exhausted in the near future.

(b) Non-conventional source of energy did not lead to environmental pollution. Energy can be harnessed from the sea in following ways 

Tidal energy

  • Tidal energy is harnessed by constructing a dam across a narrow opening to the sea. 
  • A turbine fixed at the opening of the dam converts tidal energy to electricity.
  • As you can guess, the locations where such dams can be built are limited. 

Wave energy 

  • The kinetic energy possessed by huge waves near the seashore can be trapped in a similar manner to generate electricity. 
  • The waves are generated by strong winds blowing across the sea.
  • Wave energy would be a viable proposition only where waves are very strong.

Ocean Thermal Energy 

  • The water at the surface of the sea or ocean is heated by the Sun while the water in deeper sections is relatively cold.
  • This difference in temperature is exploited to obtain energy in ocean-thermal energy conversion plants.

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