During the Cold War India was a vast and important colony of England. Under the British government Indians were trying to free their country from British clutch.
During the period of the Cold War, many changes occurred in the political system of India :
1. Independence of India : India gained independence in 1947. Indian leadership was in a dilemma about which camp to join.
2. Disbelief in Capitalism and Communism : After independence, India wanted neither to join capitalist America nor communist Russia because of its principles.
3. An Assumption of Political Leadership (Non Alignment) : Indian leaders knew that India could not imbibe either capitalism or communism. Therefore, India developed a parallel ideology of Non-Alignment which was followed later on by other countries also.
Thus, India chose the path of Non-Alignment to prevent itself from embroiled in the Cold War. Later on most of the countries of the world followed this path to preserve their specific identity and cultural traditions.