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Clarify the form of social contract according to Hobbes, Locke and Rousseau.

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Form of Social Contract according to Thomas Hobbes:

According to Thomas Hobbes, because of the situation of continuous struggle in the natural state, the people formed the state for their self – defense, applying their ‘wisdom and ‘rationality’. According to Hobbes, all people assemble and work out a contract that, “I dedicate my all rights to the administrator or the group and you too dedicate yours to them.”

As a result of the agreement, the people dedicate all their rights to the administrator, except the right of self-defense. This contract is autocratic and indecorous. As this contract is not between the administrator and the people, hence it is merely a social contract, not a political one.

By this contract, there originates a ‘corporeal lord’, called ‘Leviathan’. Prior to it, there was no governance of state or society. These both came into existence because of this only. Leviathan was having supreme rights. And therefore, it can be called as sovereign or “all powerful administrator.”

Form of Social Contract, according to John Locke: 

According to John Locke, in natural state, the people opted for two contracts for protecting themselves from different types of inconveniences:

  • Social contract
  • Political contract.

According to Locke, the first contract established the society ending natural state. The second contract was between the king and the people. By this, the people authorised the king to frame rules, and enforce them. If the administrator goes against the public interest, then the society has the right to remove the administrator, and transfer the power of governance to any other.

Form of Social Contract according to Jean Jacques Rousseau:

According to Jean Jacques Rousseau, when there erupted strife and war in the natural state, then the people decided to establish civic society be ending the natural state, and for that, they went for mutual contract.

Rousseau, in his theory, regards two forms of an individual:

personal and social.

According to Rousseau, the people make contract between their personal capacity and social capacity for getting out of the natural state. In personal capacity, a person abdicates his freedom and other rights and gets them back again in social capacity. As a result of the contract, General Will originated. All the people work under the ‘General Will’. Every person puts his persona and complete power under the ‘General Will’ and he gets back his persona and power in a collective form.

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