Major branches of Geography: Geography is an inderdisciplinary science. In this, many physical and social sciences are included. In the present form, based on the study of physical and human geography and appraisal, dualism is also seen in the form of regional and global geography, but this division can be only theoretical, not practical. In fact, the study of geography is performed by its integrated study. Geography is divided into branches and sub-divisions in the following way:
The brief explanation of the two main branches of geography is as follows:
A. Physical Geography: This is the most important branch of geography. It is a detailed study of earth’s origin, internal structure, rocks, volcanoes and earthquakes, weathering and erosion factors, atmosphere, hydrosphere and biosphere, etc.
A brief analysis of the major subdivisions of physical geography is as follows:
1. Geo – morphology: In this, a detailed study of the factors of origin, development, structure, erosion of land forms is done.
2. Climatology: It is studied in terms of weather and climatic factors, seasons, climate regions and their characteristics.
3. Oceanography: This is the study of the oceans, their mineral compositions, structures and origin, temperature, salinity, ocean water movements, etc.
4. Astronomical Geography: It involves the study of earth’s planetary motions and its relative position to Sun and Moon.
5. Bio – geography: In this, geographical analysis of vegetation and organisms is done.
6. Soil geography: It is studied in the form of soil origin, construction process, characteristics,, distribution, productivity, etc.
7. Environmental geography/Ecology: It is studied in context to the environment, environmental factors, changes in them, and their impact and conservation, etc.
B. Human Geography: Human geography is the second most important branch of geography. In it, the human species, its origins, races, their distribution and detailed explanation of their activity and their environmental interactions are studied.
The major branches of human geography are as follows:
1. Historical Geography: It is used to conduct the geographic study of ancient countries.
2. Economic Geography: In this, the geographic description of the economic activities of the human being is studied. Agricultural geography, industrial geography, resource geography, transport geography, tourism geography, etc. are the branches of economic geography.
3. Social geography: Under this, the social characteristics of the human classes living in different regions and the geographical impact on them is studied.
4. Cultural geography: In this, geographical analysis of cultural landscapes and cultural structures of different regions is done.
5. Political Geography: Under this, study of political boundaries, administrative arrangements, borders, regional disputes and international relations and resources of different countries/territories is done.
6. Population Geography: This includes a discussion about population distribution, growth, density, migration, structure, characteristics and population policies.
7. Settlement Geography: This is the study of the origin, pattern, types, functions, etc. of rural and urban habitations in relation to geographical conditions.
In fact, the division of different branches of geography may be appropriate on the basis of theoretical basis, but the overall study of any area is completed from the collective study of different branches. Geography is an integrated science, in which the integrated study of different sciences is done through sequential and regional practices.