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Write a short note on Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome.

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Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS):

1. General:

  • It is a viral infectious disease which is caused by HIV (Human immunodeficiency virus) or HTLV-3 (Human T-Lymphocyte virus-3) or LAV (Lymphadenopathy associated virus).
  • This virus belongs to the retrovirus family.
  • This virus was discovered by Montagnier (1982).
  • This virus infects helper T-lymphocytes.
  • This virus does not survive in the air.
  • It destroys the infected CD or T-cells. which are formed in the thymus during childhood?
  • A healthy man contains about 300-400 million Tcells.

2. Structure of HIV:

  • AIDS virus is an RNA retrovirus. Its RNA forms DNA in a host cell.
  • Structurally, AIDSA virus is bounded by a bilayer of phospholipids in which GP-120 & GP-41 glycoproteins remain embedded. It has 2 single-stranded RNA molecules & each RNA is attached with a reverse transcriptase enzyme. There are two protein layers around the RNA molecules viz.-P-24 proteins (Inner) & P-17 proteins (outer).

  • With the help of reverse transcriptase enzyme, HIV can synthesis DNA from RNA. Two subtypes of HIV has been found-HIV-1 and HIV-2. HIV 1 is responsible for AIDS.

3. Modes of Infection of HIV:

  • Infection takes place by blood contact.
  • Infection is possible by sexual contact.
  • The virus infects embryo in the uterus, as in filters through the endometrium of the uterus.
  • This virus is also found in the colostrum.
  • Maximum 80% transmission occurs homosexuality

4. Symptoms:

  • Constant loss of body weight.
  • Prolonged diarrhoea.
  • Prolonged fever.
  • Swelling of lymph nodes.
  • Prolonged coughing.
  • An aids-infected person normally develops Pneumocystis carinae pneumonia and Kaposi sarcoma.
  • Profuse sweating.

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