Fish Culture or Pisciculture or Fisheries:
- In developing countries like India, Supply of milk and meat per person is very less. Hence, fish supplement is essential in the diet of such countries.
- The necessity of fish protein in the country is approximately one crore tonnes per year, while we have only 35 lakh tonnes production of fish annually. Fish culture provides income and employment to the people residing in coastal states of the country.
- Various techniques are used to increase the production of fish to full-fill the demand. Fish production in India has approximately 2.34% area of inland water, which is approximately 75 lakh hectare.
- As a result of researches conducted at Central Inland Fisheries Research Institute, the fish culture and production increases up to 85000 kg./hectare/year. It is a revolution in the field of fisheries. Fisheries or fish culture gained much importance in order to encourage young men to take up small scale industries as a carrier.
- Pisciculture or fish culture involves production and breeding of fishes. Fishes are the best source of protein. Besides proteins, it has mineral salts, Vitamins (Vit-Aand Vit-D) and healthy fats insufficient amount, Fish is a complete food for men.
- Some fishes e.g. Common carp, Catla, Rohu (freshwater fishes) and Hilsa, Sardine and Prophrate (marine fishes) are edible. Because of high consumption, these fishes are cultured by scientific techniques.
- Along with the fishes other aquatic animals e.g. Prawns, Lobsters, Molluscs etc. are also cultured and it is considered as aquaculture.
Types of Cultivable Fishes:
Cultivable fishes are of three types –
- Indigenous or naturally occurring freshwater fishes. Example: Major carps.
- Some marine fishes which get adapted to freshwater Example: Chanos, Mullets etc.
- Exotic fishes: Those fishes which brought from foreign countries in India Examples: Mirror Carp, Chinese carp, Crucian carp and Common carp.