Land degradation is the major consequences of direct interference of human activities in the natural phenomenon.
Ways to check Land Degradation:
1. Loss of natural fertility of soil because of loss of nutrients.
2. Less vegetation cover
3. Changes in the characteristic of soil.
4. Pollution of water resources from the contamination of soil through which water sweeps into ground or runoff to the water bodies.
5. Changes in climatic conditions because of unbalanced created in the environment.
Causes for Land Degradation
● Overgrazing by animals
● Over mining and quarrying
● Over irrigation resulting in water logging leading to salinity and alkalinity.
● Mineral processing, like grinding of limestone for cement industry and calcite and soapstone for ceramic industries, generates heavy amount of dust and pollutes atmosphere. It later settles down on land and reduces infiltration of water into the soil besides degrading land and surface water.
● Discharge of industrial effluents into water bodies and on land.
Measures to Control Land Degradation
● Terrace farming
● Construction of dams
● Preparation of shelter belts
● Control on overgrazing by animals
● Stabilization of sand dunes by growing thorny bushes.
● Moisture conservation by bunding and contour ploughing
● Weed Control
● Proper management of waste land.
● Control on mining and quarrying activities
● Proper discharge of industrial waste/effluents.