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Draw and explain the binary full adder. Realize the implementation of full
adder using a pair of half adders. Also draw the truth table.

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Full Adder 

This adder is difficult to implement than a half-adder. The difference between a half-adder and a full-adder is that the full-adder has three inputs and two outputs, whereas half adder has only two inputs and two outputs. The first two inputs are A and B and the third input is an input carry as C-IN. When a full-adder logic is designed, you string eight of them together to create a byte-wide adder and cascade the carry bit from one adder to the next.

The output carry is designated as C-OUT and the normal output is designated as S.

Full Adder Truth Table:

With the truth-table, the full adder logic can be implemented. You can see that the output S is an XOR between the input A and the half-adder, SUM output with B and C-IN inputs. We take C-OUT will only be true if any of the two inputs out of the three are HIGH.

So, we can implement a full adder circuit with the help of two half adder circuits. At first, half adder will be used to add A and B to produce a partial Sum and a second half adder logic can be used to add C-IN to the Sum produced by the first half adder to get the final S output.

If any of the half adder logic produces a carry, there will be an output carry. So, COUT will be an OR function of the half-adder Carry outputs. Take a look at the implementation of the full adder circuit shown below.

The implementation of larger logic diagrams is possible with the above full adder logic a simpler symbol is mostly used to represent the operation. Given below is a simpler schematic representation of a one-bit full adder.

With this type of symbol, we can add two bits together, taking a carry from the next lower order of magnitude, and sending a carry to the next higher order of magnitude. In a computer, for a multi-bit operation, each bit must be represented by a full adder and must be added simultaneously. Thus, to add two 8-bit numbers, you will need 8 full adders which can be formed by cascading two of the 4-bit blocks.

Combinational circuit combines the different gates in the circuit for example encoder, decoder, multiplexer and demultiplexer. Characteristics of combinational circuits are as follows.

  • The output at any instant of time, depends only on the levels present at input terminals.
  • It does not use any memory. The previous state of input does not have any effect on the present state of the circuit.
  • It  can have a number of inputs and m number of outputs.

The relationship between the Full-Adder and the Half-Adder is half adder produces results and full adder uses half adder to produce  some other result. Similarly, while the Full-Adder is of two Half-Adders, the Full-Adder is the actual block that we use to create the arithmetic circuits.

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