Physical growth is rapid during infancy. If provided with good nutrition, infants almost tripple in weight and increase in body length by about one-third, during the first year.
Reflexes : At birth, new borns possess several simple reflexes (inherited responses to stimulation in certain areas of the body). The reflexes which new boms show at birth and very shortly thereafter are as follows :
• Blinking : Baby closes eyes in response to light.
• Rooting : When cheek is touched or stroked, baby turns toward touch, moves lips and tongue to suck.
• Sucking : When nipple or other object placed in mouth, baby sucks.
• Tonic neck : When baby is placed on back with head turned to one side, baby stretches out arm and leg on side baby is facing.
• Moro : Baby throws out arms and fans fingers, extends neck and cries in response to loud noise or sudden drop of head.
• Babinski : When baby’s foot is stroked from head to toe, toes fan out.
• Grasping : When palms of hands are stroked, baby closes fingers around the object in a strong grasp.
• Stepping : Baby makes stepping motions if held upright so one foot just touches a surface. Locomotor development:
Birth — Fetal posture
One month — Lifts head
Six weeks — When held upright, holds head erect and steady
Two months — Lifts chest; Lifts self by arms; Rolls from side to back
Three months — Grasps cube; reach and miss
Four months — Rolls from back to side
Four months — sits with support
Seven months — Sits alone; crawls
Eight months — Stands with help; Pull to stand
Nine months — Plays pat-a-cake
Eleven months — Stands alone; crawls up stairs
Twelve months — Walks alone
Sixteen months — Walks up stairs with help
Twenty three months — Jumps in place
Thirteen months — Builds tower of two cubes
Fourteen months — Scribbles vigorously