Any physical environmental and social causes of the stress state is termed as stressors. Some examples of stressors are as follows:
Physical stressors — related to problems in one’s body.
Social stressors — demands of the society, in the form of rigid social norms.
Work stressors — demands of the job, or role conflict or work overload.
Environmental stressors — Adverse climatic . conditions, noisy neighborhood, traffic jams
Decision stressor — Inability to take decision because of certain conflicts.
Change stressor — Change in job, school or relocating to a new place/city.
When an individual reacts to a stress or in an adaptive manner, i.e. the person has developed effective ways of coping, it leads to the Wellness cycle. There are certain health-promoting lifestyle responses that leads to wellness and helps in combating stress,
which are as follows :
Immediate techniques and skills :
Adaptive behavioral responses : This includes techniques such as assertiveness and time management strategies.
Adaptive physical responses : This includes having nutrition’s diet, regular exercise and adequate relaxation (may be through relaxation training).
Adaptive cognitive and emotional responses : This includes cognitive restructuring which leads to changes in the belief structure, influencing perception of events as well as stress inoculation, i.e. developing an adaptability or resistance to stressful situation.
Cognitive and emotional development : They tend to have improved mental health and thus a resistance to future stressors. This in turn leads to increased productivity, increased enjoyment and increased intimacy.
Long-term effects : When the health promoting techniques and skills are practiced for a long period of time, it leads to changes in the internal resources and thus leads to an adaptive personality.
Some of the long-term effects are as follows :
• Behavioral developments : It leads to increased self-esteem, self-confidence and self-respect.
• Physical development : It leads to improved health and resistance to diseases.