The numerous problems of the Indian tribals are as follows:
Problem of poverty and indebtedness : The majority of tribals are poor and even lack the basic necessities like food, clothing and shelter. Among them, the rate of indebtedness is also very high. To fulfil their basic needs, they have to take loan at a very high rate of interest. Tribals do not prefer to take loans from the banks because of tedious procedure. Also, banks can hardly provide loans for non productive purposes such as marriage, death, festivals, ceremonies, rituals, etc.
Problem of housing : The tribes are basically hunter-gatherers or engaged in shifting cultivation. So, there is a tendency among them of moving from one place to another. Usually their huts are made up of grasses, bushes, leaves, bamboo, woods etc. which are prone to fire or any sort of natural calamity. They are now suffering from the problems of non-availability of adequate forest products required for their huts. Along with this, due to increase in population, the division of homestead land is taking place leading towards the lack of housing facilities.
Problem of education : Educationally also, the tribals are backward as there are not enough educational institutions for them. Due to less educational opportunities, many of them are not able to’ find proper jobs. Educational problem in tribal area is also related to the wandering economy as practiced by them and their culture of relating education with everyday living. Due to lack of education the tribals are quite superstitious and believe in all forms of magic and totems and have remained backward for centuries together.
Problem of unemployment : The lands on which the tribals abide have now been brought under the government administra-tion. The new forest policies have snatched away the traditional rights of the tribal people over the forest. The division of land in each generation and the pressure of population on the land have reduced the employment opportunities among the tribals. In mining industries too they are facing the problem of unemployment because skilled labourers are employed and often non-tribal labour can be brought due to easy transportation.
Problem of health and sanitation : Due to isolation and lack of communication, the tribal people are not able to attain the benefits of the programmes related to the general health, reproductive health, child develop¬ment, family welfare, communicable diseases, sex-linked diseases, etc. They are also deprived of medical facilities, resulting in unsolved health issues.