The steps taken by the Government for the upliftment of the Indian tribes can be listed as follows :
Training and coaching centers : To help the tribals secure good employment in future, training and coaching centers have been established by the government all over India. The young tribals are especially trained in these centers to prepare them for the examinations conducted by the Union Public Service Commission (UPSC) and State Service Commission (SSC).
Post metric scholarship : All eligible students belonging to ST/SC community, after passing their matriculation or class 10, are awarded financial assistance for post metric scholarships to pursue future education. These scholarships are given to ST/SC students who come from very low economic background. Many tribal youth have benefitted from this scheme of the government.
Hostels for ST/SC girls : The Government of India is giving financial assistance to all the state governments for the construction of hostels for ST/SC girls, especially those coming from the villages to study or work in towns. The state governments have benefited many of these hostels and the tribal girls or women have benefited a lot.
Ministry of tribal welfare : To impart financial assistance for the tribal groups and their development, the National Democratic Alliance Government under the former Prime Minister Sri. Atal Bihari Vajpayee sanctioned 500 crores to establish the National Schedule Tribe Finance and Development Corporation. A loan up to ? 50,000 at the rate of 4% is given to the Tribals (women) by the NSTFDC. This loan, at the rate of 4% has made Tribal women financially sound.
TV programmes like’ ‘Jan Jatiya Darpan’ are telecasted on the channel Doordarshan and plenty of information regarding the tribals is made available from the websites of the Ministry of Tribal Welfare. About ? 10 crores financial assistance is provided for the preservation and maintenance of the various Tribal Sites and Historical Places. The Vajpayee Government also allotted ? 649.75 crores which was increased to ? 1090 crores for the various development programmes for the Scheduled Tribes and Castes.
Constitutional measures : The Indian Constitution provides certain safeguards for STs mainly for their educational and economic interests and also for the prevention of social distances with other communities.
Some of the measures could be listed as follows:
1. Article 16-There is equality of opportunities in matters of employment under the government.
2. Article 29-Protection of cultural and educational rights of the community.
3. Article 46-The state will provide special care, education and economic assistance to the weaker sections of the people provided they fall into the category of ST/SC. They will also be protected from all kinds of injustices.
4. Article 164-Provides a Ministry of Tribal Welfare in the states of Bihar, M.P. and Orissa.
5. Article 275-Makes provision for the granting of special funds by the Union Government to the State Government, for promoting welfare of the STs including better administration for them.
6. Article 330/332-Reservation of seats for ST’s/SC’s in the public sector and state elections.
7. Article 335-Assures the ST’s/SC’s that they will be given special attention while filling up vacancies for jobs.
8. Article 339-The President of India can ask for reports regarding the administration of ST’s/SC’s areas and welfare of the ST’s/SC’s.