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Briefly discuss the Directive Principles of the Indian Constitution. How are these principles implemented ?

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The Directive Principles of State Policy is contained in Part IV, Articles 36-51 of the Indian constitution. The Directive Principles are broad directives given to the state in accordance with which the legislative and executive powers of the state are to be exercised.

Socialist and Economic Principles: The socialist and economic principles always aim to shape our country into a Welfare State. The State shall strive to minimize the inequalities in income and try to eliminate inequalities in status, facilities and opportunities by directing the following policies.

• adequate means of livelihood for all citizens irrespective of men and women equally. 

• equal distribution of wealth and resources among all classes. 

• equal pay for equal work for both men and women. 

• just and humane conditions of work, a decent standard of living, full employment, leisure and social and cultural opportunities. 

• protection of children, youth against exploitation and against moral and material abandonment.

• provision of work and compulsory education for all people, relief in case of unemployment, old age, sickness and disability and other cases of undeserved want. 

• protection of adult and child labor.

Gandhian Principles : 

Our constitution framers wanted to implement the Gandhian principles for which the State shall take the following steps :

• to organize village panchayats and endow them with power and authority to enable them to function as unit of self-government. 

• to promote cottage industries and village industries on an individual or cooperative basis in rural areas. 

• to prohibit consumption of intoxicating and injurious drinks and drugs. 

• to promote educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people particularly SC’s, ST’s to establish social justice and equity. 

• to organize agricultural and animal husbandry on modem and scientific lines. 

• to prohibit the slaughter of cows and other useful cattle. 

• to protect and improve environment and safeguard the forests and wildlife of the country. 

• to protect, preserve and maintain places of national historical importance. 

• to separate the judiciary from the executive.

International Principles: Principles enjoined in Article 51 under international principles are some provisions to the State relating to ensure international peace and security. 

The State shall attempt:

• to promote international peace and security; 

• to maintain just and honorable relations between nations; 

• to foster respect for international law and treaty obligations; 

• to encourage settlement of international disputes by arbitration.

The State has made and is making many efforts to implement the Directive Principles. The Programme of Universalisation of Elementary Education and the fiveyear plans has been accorded the highest priority in order to provide free education to all children up to the age of 14 years. Welfare schemes for the weaker sections are being implemented both by the Central and State Governments. The government provides free textbooks to students belonging to scheduled castes or scheduled tribes.

Several Land Reform Acts were enacted to provide ownership rights to poor farmers. The Minimum Wages Act of 1948 empowers government to fix minimum wages for employees engaged in various employments. The Consumer Protection Act of 1986 provides for the better protection of consumers. The Equal Remuneration Act of 1976, provides for equal pay for equal work for both men and women.[39] The Sampoorna Grameen Rozgar Yojana was launched in 2001 to attain the objective of gainful employment for the rural poor. Panchayati Raj now covers almost all states and Union territories.[41] India’s Foreign Policy has also to some .

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