(i) Offside : Offside is one of the laws of association football which states that a player is in an offside position if any of their body part except the hands and arms is in the opponents’ half of the pitch and closer to the opponents’ goal line than both the ball and the second-last opponent (not necessarily the goalkeeper). Being in an offside position is not an offence in itself; a player who was in an offside position at the moment the ball last touched, or was played by a team mate, must then become involved in active play in the opinion of the referee, in order for an offence to occur. When the offside offence occurs, the referee stops play and awards an indirect free kick to the defending team from the place where the offending player became involved in active play.
(ii) Dropped-Ball: It is a method of restarting the play. It is designed to offer no advantage to either side, generally being awarded when play has been stopped due to reasons other than normal game-play or misconduct.
The referee drops the ball at the position where it was when play was stopped, unless play was stopped inside the goal area in which the ball is dropped on the goal area line which is parallel to the goal line at the point nearest to where the ball was when play was stopped. The ball is in play when it touches the ground. Any number of players may contest a dropped ball (including the goalkeepers); the referee cannot decide who may contest a dropped ball or its outcome.