(i) Aldose : Aldose has one aldehyde molecule and has a double carbon and oxygen bond.
Ketose : Ketose has one ketone molecule and has the unique double carbon to carbon bond. Ketose also has no optical properties, which is one way that is being developed to detect blood sugar concentration.
(ii) Pluripotent stem cells : These are true stem cells, with the potential to make any differentiated cell in the body.
Multipotent stem cells: These are true stem cells but can only differentiate into a limited number of types.
For example, the bone marrow contains multipotent stem cells that give rise to all the cells of the blood but not to other types of cells.
(in) Chemostat : A type of cell culture; a component of medium is in a growth limiting concentration; fresh medium is added at regular intervals and equal volume of culture is withdrawn.
Thrbidostat : A type of suspension culture; when culture reaches a predetermined cell density, a volume of culture is replaced by fresh medium; works well at growth rates close to the maximum.
(iv) Codon is the triplet sequence in the messenger RNA (mRNA) transcript which specifies a corresponding amino acid (or a start or stop command).
Anticodon is the corresponding triplet sequence on the transfer RNA (tRNA) which brings in the specific amino acid to the ribosome dining translation. The anticodon is complementary to the codon, that is, if the codon is AUU, then the anticodon is UAA.
(v) Androgenesis is development of an embryo from a fertilised irradiated egg, involving only the male nucleus.
Gynogenesis is development of a fertilised egg through the action of the egg nucleus, without participation of the sperm nucleus.